Skin microcirculation is located in the dermis and hypodermis layers. It plays a significant role in skin homeostasis (transportation of gases, nutrients, waste, hormones), in body thermoregulation, in blood pressure regulation and in inflammatory response.
Dermal arterioles and venules are composed of endothelial cells, connective tissues (collagen, elastin) and of smooth muscle cells which allow vessel vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Dermal capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells and of pericytes surrounded by a basal membrane.
A microcirculation dysfunction due to external factors (e.g. sun exposure, heat, cold, microorganisms and food) or internal factors (immune system) can cause redness, venous insufficiency or rosacea. Microcirculation is also altered by skin ageing, with a progressive decrease of new blood vessel formation (angiogenesis). This age-related alteration of skin microcirculation may have different consequences: sensation of cold, pallor, cutaneous ischemia, alopecia, etc.
Skin microcirculation and vascularization: in vitro models and assays
Bioalternatives has many in vitro models at your disposal:
- Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)
- Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d)
- HMVEC-d and NHDF coculture (ENDOF)
- Human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC)
- Other skin cells (NHEK, NHDF, etc.)
on which we can evaluate the effect of active cosmetic compounds on skin microvascularization by measuring:
- Viability, proliferation and migration of endothelial cells
- Cell differentiation and pseudotube (angiogenesis, neovascularization) formation
- Protection of endothelial cells against stress (inflammation, infection, etc.)
- Veinotonic activity of smooth muscle cells
- Angiogenic factor release (e.g.VEGF)
Here are a few examples among all assays proposed by Bioalternatives in the field of microvascularization: